Flower Pots

Flower Pots – A History

Flower Pots on a Cute Indoor Plant Stand

Figure 1: Flower Pots on a Cute Indoor Plant Stand

 Flower Pots - Terra CottaFlower pots have had various uses over time: moving plants to new locations — sometimes great distances, starting seeds, patio gardening, cultivation of indoor plants, and often for year-round growth in very cold climates, which usually have a short growing season. During the 18th century Josiah Wedgwood manufactured flower pots that were as gorgeous as his China dinnerware; they were often chosen as table centerpieces.

Flower pots were historically made from terra cotta; coarse, porous clay fired in a kiln and used mainly for vases, roofing and architectural purposes. Known and made use of from as early as 3,000 B.C., terra cotta died out when the Roman Empire collapsed; it was revived in Italy and Germany in the 1400’s and remains popular to this day. Clay pots are commonly used for both house plants and outdoor plants; the unglazed clay allows air and moisture to penetrate the pot; they also act as a wick to take excess moisture from the soil, possibly preventing root rot and improving plant health care. They are an excellent choice for Roses, African Violets, Succulent plants, tropical plants (including Palm Plants), and there are even special terra cotta flower pots made for Orchid care.

Flower Pots - Metal Kit

Figure 3: Metal Flower Pot

Alternative Flower Pots

Presently we have commercial flower pots made of many materials such as plastic, wood, stone, and biodegradable materials. Recycling plastic food containers or tin cans by pounding drainage holes in the bottom with a hammer and nail also gives us flower pots.

Flower Pots - Terra Cotta Pot in a Wrought Iron Tricycle

Figure 4: Terra Cotta Flower Pot in a Wrought Iron Tricycle

During difficult financial periods we have often used tin cans for flower pots; you can decorate them by painting or gluing on tiny objects or just wrap with foil or pretty paper and tie a bow – voila! – beautiful and unique! Other ideas for flower pots, planters or just as garden ornaments include baskets, pails, coffee/tea pots, tea kettles, tubs or mailboxes – just stretch your imagination and use whatever fits in with your indoor, yard, patio or garden design.

Flower Pots - Hanging

Figure 5: Beautiful Hanging Flower Pot

Hanging planters are great for Spider Plants and similar types of houseplants, but they need to be placed where heads won’t be bumped; hanging them on fence panels adds a nice touch and they can usually be seen before you crack your skull! Hanging planters are also a good  idea for poisonous plants because they can be kept out of reach of children and pets.

Flower pots usually have a hole in the bottom for drainage; sometimes there is a saucer placed beneath the pot to catch the water – often plants can use this water by taking it up through the root system. There are plants however, that should not be saturated and many that should not have water remain in the saucer even if they can be saturated – know the watering instructions for each plant you plan to grow.

Flower Pots - Self Watering Planter

Figure 6: Self Watering Planter

More recently flower pots have been designed with an automatic watering system and their own reservoir for water storage, this innovation is particularly convenient if you must be away from home. Some Indoor plant stands, like the one in Figure 6, hold an assortment of flower pots and are self watering.

Container Gardening

Container gardening is as old as Rome, with the boxes also made of terra cotta. In the first century B.C most Romans cultivated their small cottage gardens to provide food, medicinal herbs, and flowers.

Flower Pots - French Style Window Box

Figure 7: French Style Window Box

Peasants had little if any gardening space and began to grow the plants they needed in window boxes. Eventually they were so popular that the rich upper classes began to develop balcony and rooftop gardens – elaborate with vines, shrubs, flowers and even fishponds.

The window boxes kept their popularity and spread to Europe and later to America. English cottage gardens boasted wire hay baskets as a new form to grow plants in at the windows; France often used wrought iron window boxes like the one pictured in Figure 7.

Flower Pots - Planter Box

Figure 8 – Planter Box Garden (Used with permission from http://gospotgo.smugmug.com)

Large planter boxes for vegetable gardening can be built at home, such as the one in Figure 8, constructed for peppers and tomatoes. Cyclamen also thrive in planters like these.

Original garden ideas can be checked for appropriate lighting, watering, fertilizing and aesthetic appeal at your local garden center. If you need fresh opinions or just suggestions also look through books at the library or search online. If you don’t have a gardeners’ supply center nearby, Amazon.com is an excellent source of books for garden ideas but also offers: tools, soil, fertilizers, herbicide/pesticide sprays, gloves, flower pots, fence panels, planter boxes, garden ornaments, plant pots, and window boxes along with the seeds or growing plants – and almost anything else you could need.

If you love to garden and are creative, I’m sure you’ll find things to put your foliage and flowering plants in that may be unusual but very useful and attractive in a specific setting.

Sources and Citations

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/terracotta – research source

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flowerpot – research source

http://www.thriftyfun.com/tf/Gardening/Creative_Planters/Creative-Planter-Ideas.html – research source

http://www.bloomingbaskets.ie/index.php/the-history-of-window-boxes – research source

https://www.google.com/#q=picture+of+window+boxes%3F – research source

African Violets

African Violets – A Brief History

African Violets (Saintpaulias) are tropical plants that were found in the wilds of Africa in 1892 and their common name is from their resemblance to true violets (Violaceae). Before the end of the 19th century, African Violets were being propagated in hothouses in Europe.

African Violet - Varied Colors

Figure 1: Colors of African Violets

In 1927 a California nursery ordered seeds for the African Violet from England and Germany – then these flowering plants became known globally and are now among the most popular house plants. Of the 1,000 plants grown, ten were chosen as the first hybrids and introduced to the world in 1936. Despite the fact that most commercial plants are grown from cuttings and tissue culture, many of the species of African Violet are now endangered, as their habitats are cleared for agriculture.

African Violet Description

African Violets are a flowering perennial, highly sensitive to temperature change — particularly if their leaves cool rapidly. The leaves are covered in a stiff “velvet” that adds to the beauty of these flowering plants. The sheen on the leaves in Figures 1, 2, and 3 are the light reflecting off of the fine filaments that make up the velvet.

Like Cyclamen, these plants are valued more for the beautiful flowers than the foliage. In the wild they produce violet, pale blue, white and purple flowers; as a general rule size varies from the micro at less than 3 (three) inches to the giant that can grow to approximately 16 inches.

 African Violet Propagation

The simplest way to begin new plants is to pick a leaf off at the base of the African Violet and stick it into damp soil. Keep the humidity right and you’ll have a new plant coming.

One other method that I have used is to fill a glass with water and put a plastic bag over the top secured with a rubber band. Make a small slit in the bag and push the stem through into the water; soon you will see roots appearing, ready to plant. Make sure that when you plant it the soil is not touching the leaf – only the stem.

African Violet Care

As indoor plants, grown under proper conditions including the use a sterile pot and soil, good water flow/drainage, and indirect, filtered afternoon sunlight, African Violets will bloom endlessly. There are many beautiful flower pots and indoor plant stands that suit African Violets perfectly.

African Violet - Decorative Basket

Figure 3: African Violet Plants in a Decorative Basket

I recommend buying small stones from the nursery to line the bottom of the pot for improved drainage and using potting soil made specifically for African Violets. Optimal plant health care requires you to periodically repot the African Violet to avoid overcrowding the roots.

The soil for the plant should be kept slightly damp. The easiest way to water is from the base; do not get the leaves wet as it makes ugly brown spots on them. Never saturate the soil. Daytime temperature should be between 70 – 75 degrees Fahrenheit; don’t let it drop below 60 degrees overnight.

To keep the plants growing evenly and to obtain a good shape to your African Violet, turn the pot one-quarter turn every second day – always the same direction. Regular fluorescent lights for about 16 hours per day with 8 hours of darkness will usually give sensational bloom but the plants will need extra food and water. Group your plants to help keep the humidity at the required level. Whatever fertilizer you choose, use it in the water according to directions and give them this every time you water.  If you also have Succulent plants, the African Violet fertilizer can be used on them as well.

African Violets - Basket Bouquet

Figure 4: Mixed Basket of African Violets and Ivy

Alternative Growth Methods

African Violets give amazing growth hydroponically. Old leaves may yellow as they adapt to the new system; remove them and soon the plant will offer brighter blossoms and stronger leaves. The link, Hydroponics Systems, offers complete hydroponics systems, educational books, and organic fertilizers to aid you in setting up your own hydroponics system.

You can also grow African Violets in a terrarium or similar atmosphere where they get plenty of humidity.

Modern Uses of African Violets

African Violets - Mixed basket

Figure 5: Mixed Basket of African Violets, Roses, Azaleas, Ivy and Pink Hypoestes

Florist shops have recently had an increasing demand for bouquets that include African Violets. A decorative bouquet of this type is often made up of blooms from flowering plants such as Roses, Azaleas, Hibiscus, Hydrangea, Gardenia, OrchidsPeonies, and spring flowers – add beautiful potted violets in varying shades and you have a rainbow of colors to delight the eye! The baskets featured in Figures 3, 4, and 5 are examples of how beautiful such bouquets from florists can be.

Some species of spring flowers are poisonous to cats, among them the Peony, Tulips and certain Lilies; however, the African Violet, Easter Orchids, Miniature Roses and other popular types of flowering plants and most varieties Palm Plants are non-toxic to them. However, if a child or pet ingests or gets cut on any plant, call a poison control center immediately. It’s better to be overly cautious than to lose a loved-one, and many plants are very toxic. For more information on the subject, see Poisonous Plants.


Sources and Citations

http://www.hydro-orchids.com/tp-AFV.html  – research source

http://www.articlesbase.com/gardening-articles/advice-to-gardeners-wanting-to-grow-african-violets-1835058.html?utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=ab_paid_12&gclid=CJnd3K_upboCFcU5Qgode2AArw  – research source

http://answers.ask.com/Home/Gardening/how_to_grow_african_violets?ad=semD&an=google_s&am=broad&o=2469  – research source

http://www.agardenforthehouse.com/2012/11/my-african-violet-growing-guide/  – research source

http://www.skh.com/gardeningatoz/cactus-succulent-care/ – research source